Thyroid is a small butterfly-shaped gland in front of the neck and secretes the Thyroid hormone in response to the pituitary gland within the endocrine system. The pituitary gland in your brain creates thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) which triggers the thyroid to produce two other hormones, T3 and T4. When T3 and T4 production is high or low, thyroid issues can result. These thyroid imbalances can create fertility issues. This can cause an increased rate of pregnancy loss, ovulatory disorders, irregular periods, preterm birth and lower IQs.
What thyroid disorders are most commonly associated with fertility?
Doctors look for abnormalities in hormone levels, which typically result in a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.
Hyperthyroidism occurs when the thyroid overproduces hormones. Patients may suffer from anxiety, tremors, rapid heart rate, weight loss, more frequent bowel movements, intolerance to heat, and brittle hair. Infertility symptoms can include loss of libido and menstrual cycle irregularities.
Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid under-produces hormones. Common symptoms include fatigue, low energy, muscle weakness, weight gain, depression, constipation, intolerance to cold, and dry skin.
Infertility symptoms can include menstrual cycle abnormalities with cycles being heavier and less frequent, a low Basal Body Temperature and difficulty conceiving. As you can see, some of these signs can be indicative of other fertility problems, making symptoms a challenge to assess.