What is insulin resistance?
Under normal conditions, the hormone insulin rises briefly after eating. It stimulates the liver and muscles to take up sugar from the blood and convert it to energy. That then causes blood sugar to fall, and then insulin to fall. With normal insulin sensitivity, both sugar and insulin are normal on a fasting blood test. With insulin resistance, blood sugar may be normal, but insulin is high.
Because the pancreas has to make more and more insulin to try to get its message through. Too much insulin generates inflammation and causes weight gain. It can also lead to Type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Too much insulin is also an underlying physiological driver of PCOS